Archive for February, 2013

Causes of deaths for the Southeastern Michigan area:Homicide, Unintentional Injury & Suicide

February 25, 2013

This post shows the homicide, unintentional injury, and suicide death rates for the Southeastern Michigan area and the Metro-Detroit area from 1980 to 2010. The Southeastern Michigan area is comprised of Livingston, Macomb, Monroe, Oakland, St. Clair, Washtenaw, and Wayne counties. The Metro-Detroit area consists of Wayne, Macomb, and Oakland counties. While the City of Detroit data is included with the Wayne County data, we also examine just Detroit data in these charts.

The rates for the seven-county region were calculated on a five year rolling average while the rates for the Metro-Detroit area are presented on an annual basis. The Michigan Department of Community Health provided all information, and all rates are per 1,000. Sometimes the series are interrupted because of gaps in the data.

In the following charts you will see:

•Detroit and Wayne County have the highest homicide rate. The rates for these two areas have been increasing in recent years but are not near their peaks.
•The unintentional death rate for those under 25 has been decreasing.
•The suicide rate for those under 25 has also been decreasing, until a recent increasing trend, but the rate for those 25-74 is increasing in some areas.
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The homicide rate, when examined at both the five year rolling average for the seven-county region and the annual rate for the tri-county region, is highest in Detroit and Wayne County in all age groups. In Detroit and Wayne County the rates began to decrease from their peaks in the late-80s to mid-90s. However, for those under 25 in Detroit and Wayne County, the homicide rate began to increase again in recent years when looking at the five year rolling average (as displayed in the chart with data from Southeastern Michigan). When looking at the other counties across age groups, the homicide rate has remained fairly low and stable.

There was only enough information on the homicide rate for those 75 and older for the City of Detroit and Wayne County because the number of murders in the other counties was either so low, or non-existent, that a rate could be determined. In the information that was available, Detroit consistently had higher rates.

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According to the Center for Disease Control, unintentional injuries are unplanned injuries that occur suddenly; they are typically associated with crashes, falls, fires, burns, drowning, poisoning, and aspirations. The death rate associated with unintentional injuries was highest for those 75 and older, although rates for the seven-county region have fluctuated across time. The largest increase can be seen in the Oakland County annual rate data; the annual unintentional injury death rate increased from a series low of 35.6 in 1981 to a peak 177.3 in 2010, with a great deal of variation.

Also, the graphs for both for the Southeastern Michigan area and the Metro-Detroit area show an overall decreasing trend in deaths related to unintentional injuries for those under the age of 25 from 1980 to early-2000s.

The City of Detroit had the highest death rates associated with unintentional injuries for the 25-74 age group. Since the early-2000s, there appears to be an increasing trend of deaths related to unintentional injuries for the 25-74 age groups for all counties in the Southeastern Michigan area, with the exception of Oakland and Washtenaw counties.

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In Southeastern Michigan, the suicide rate has been higher for the 25-74 age group compared to those under 25 from 1980 to 2010. St. Clair County had the highest suicide rate for those 25-74 years old, peaking at 21.5 for the 2006-10 time frame. The rates for those 25-74 years old for St. Clair County and Macomb County have been increasing since the mid-90s, when looking at the five-year averages. When just looking at the tri-county area, it can be seen the suicide rate began to increase in the mid-2000s for the 25-74 age group. It did start to decrease in 2009 though.

For the under 25 age group, St. Clair County had the overall highest rate at 9.1, both in the 1989-1992 and 1990-93 time frames. Overall, data shows there has been a slight decreasing trend in suicides in this age group from the late-80s to the early-2000s. Since then, there appears to be an increasing trend, except in Oakland County. Monroe and Livingston were also showing declines, but their data appears to be missing for recent years.

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Mortality trends by causes for Southeastern Michigan

February 18, 2013

In this week’s post we examine the death rates for several causes for the Southeastern Michigan area, which consists of Livingston, Macomb, Monroe, Oakland, St. Clair, Washtenaw and Wayne counties. We also included the City of Detroit in these charts. When comparing all seven counties in the region, a 5-year rolling average was used, as this was the only consistent type of data reporting used by the Michigan Department of Community Health for all the causes of death examined here. When comparing just the tri-county Metro-Detroit region (Macomb, Oakland, and Wayne counties along with the City of Detroit) data was reported on a yearly basis.  Where numbers aren’t reported in the charts it is because the Michigan Department of Community Health did not have sufficient data; this is seen most often with Livingston, Monroe and St. Clair counties. In addition, all death rates were reported per 100,000.

After examining all charts, the reader will see that heart disease has the highest death rate in the area, but has also seen a significant decrease over the last 30 years for the 75 and older population. Death rates related to strokes and flu and pneumonia for the 75 and older population have also been decreasing. Death rates associated with chronic diseases, such as kidney and respiratory diseases, have been increasing for the older population, as have the death rates associated with diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease.

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The death rate associated with heart disease is the highest of all the causes of deaths examined in this post. While it has been decreasing since the 1980s in the Southeastern Michigan area; the lowest death rate associated with heart disease is still higher than the death rates associated with cancer for the region. For the five year rolling average of the entire Southeastern Michigan area, Washtenaw County has consistently had the lowest death rate associated with heart disease for those 75 and older.

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The four charts above show the cancer death rate for Southeastern Michigan residents age 75 and older and for those 50 and younger. As can be seen by both the data provided for the seven county regions and the tri-county region, the cancer death rate is well over 1,000 points higher for those 75 and older  than those 50 and younger, when comparing the highest rates in the seven county charts. For those 75 and older, Livingston County had the highest five year rolling average cancer death rate of 1,715.5 from 1995-1999.

For those 50 and younger the City of Detroit had the highest rate at 31.9 from 1991-95. For those under the age of 50 in the chart that compares all seven counties in the Southeastern Michigan area, Detroit consistently had the highest rates, while for those 75 and older Detroit only began to have the highest cancer death rate with the 2000-04; this trend has continued. Before then, Livingston and St. Clair counties had the highest rates for those 75 and older.

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For the 75 and older population the death rate associated with strokes has been decreasing over time. For example, Washtenaw County started out with the highest death rate caused by strokes when looking at the 1980-84 average; this rate was recorded at 1,179.1. For the 2006-10 average though the rate was recorded at 500.5. Monroe County had the highest death rate average for this population for 2006-10 with a rate of 521.8.

When looking at the data for the 50 and younger population, Detroit had a higher death rate when comparing both the seven county region and the Metro-Detroit area. The 2006-10 average for Detroit was 5.9; this shows how deaths associated with strokes have a much lower rate for the younger population.

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When examining the death rates associated with the flu and pneumonia in all four charts there appears to be a downward trend. However, the death rate did spike in the early 1990’s for all charts except the one that shows the five year rolling average for those 75 and older in the Southeastern Michigan region.   For the 75 and older population the death rate ranged from about 300 to 400 in the early 1980s. Those numbers have since decreased, however the overall range has expanded. For example, for the 2006-10 average for the 75 and older population Livingston County had the highest rate at 243.5 while Monroe County had the lowest at 87.7.

When comparing the younger population with the older population, the death rates are much lower for those who are younger. For example, the highest five year average flu and pneumonia death rate recorded for those 50 and younger was in 1992-96 for the City of Detroit; it was recorded at 8.4. The highest rate recorded for those 75 and older was 543.1 for Washtenaw County residents for the 1986-90 average. For the younger population the Michigan Department of Community Health did not have consistent information available for all counties in the Southeastern Michigan region.

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The diabetes death rate for those under the age of 50 is highest for the City of Detroit when comparing data at the yearly level for the Metro-Detroit area and for the five year rolling average when looking at all of Southeastern Michigan.  In recent years the diabetes death rate for those 75 and older has been highest and in St. Clair and Monroe counties. St. Clair County has had the highest five year rolling average since 2002-06. Overall, since 1980 for those 75 and older in the seven county regions, Monroe County recorded the highest rate at 402 for the 1998-02 average.

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While the rate of deaths caused by chronic liver disease shows an overall downward trend for those 75 and older in the Southeastern Michigan area, the data shows that Monroe County residents are following that trend at an even a slower pace.  Monroe and St. Clair counties both saw a peak in the average number of deaths associated with this disease in the 1997-2001 time frame. However, following that, St. Clair County’s numbers decreased more rapidly than those in Monroe County. For the 2006-10 average Monroe County recorded a rate of 36.4; for those 50 and younger Monroe County residents recorded a rate of about 3.8.

For the younger population, City of Detroit residents had a higher death rates associated with chronic liver disease when looking at both the seven county region and the tri-county area. When examining the seven county region though, the decline in deaths associated with this disease was much more prominent. For the 1985-89 average, the City of Detroit reached a peak of 20.2; that number has since decreased to 3.6 for the 2006-10 average. Starting with the 2000-04 average, St. Clair County moved ahead of the City of Detroit for the death rate associated with chronic liver disease. St. Clair County has remained ahead of Detroit and recorded an average death rate of 4.2 for 2006-10.

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The two charts showing data for chronic kidney disease death rates for those 75 and older shows there has been an increasing trend over time. For example, in the City of Detroit, the 1980-84 average was 111.2 and the 2006-2010 average was 216.2. The City of Detroit has recorded the highest death rate for this disease since the 1996-00 five year rolling average was calculated for the elderly population. While the death rate did begin to trend downward for Detroit after the 2001-05 average, the 2006-10 average is still much higher than the 1980-84 average.

The chart showing the chronic kidney disease death rates for those 50 and younger for the City of Detroit and Wayne County shows Detroit’s rate has consistently remained higher. In 2010 Detroit’s rate was recorded at 2 and Wayne County’s was recorded at 1.2. Information for Macomb and Oakland counties with this population wasn’t consistently available on yearly basis; the same goes for the Southeastern Michigan reason with the five year rolling average.

As with trends seen throughout this post though, the death rate for the younger population with this disease is much lower than those 75 and older.

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When looking at the death rates associated with chronic respiratory disease the data shows they have been increasing for those 75 and older. However, when looking at the rates for those under the age of 50 there is no evidence of such a prominent increase. Instead, the Metro-Detroit region shows no regular trend and for the information available for the Southeastern Michigan area the trend was less erratic, but this can be attributed to the fact that the data is based on a rolling average. The City of Detroit did have the highest rates for both charts that show the data for those under the age of 50.

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The death rate associated with Alzheimer’s Disease has seen an overall upward trend in the Southeastern Michigan area for all ages. Livingston County though saw a large increase from 1994-98 to 1999-03. The five year age death rate associated with this disease was recorded at 27.8 for 1999-03; which was the highest recorded rate for the county and the region. Washtenaw County has had the highest death rate associated with this disease since the early 2000s.For the 2006-10 average it was recorded at 21.9.

 

 

January reports for monthly economic indicators (represents December updates and 2012 data)

February 11, 2013
•Unemployment rate increases, while the number of employed decreases. The number of auto manufacturing and auto parts manufacturing employees also decreased from November to December (monthly)
•Purchasing manager’s index remains steady (monthly)
•Commodity price index increases (monthly)
•Consumer price index changes decrease for all and all items less food and energy (bi-monthly)
•Building permits decrease for Oakland and Macomb counties, remain steady for Wayne County (monthly)
• Detroit building permits remain steady at 0, demolitions decrease (monthly)
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According to the most recent data provided by the Michigan Department of Technology, Management and Budget, the jobless rate for the month of December was at 18.2 percent in Detroit; it was at 8.9 percent for the state. While the state’s jobless rate remained the same from November to December, it increased by .6 percent in Detroit in that same time period.

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The number of employed in the city of Detroit decreased by 1,677 people from November to December. From October to December there was a loss of 3,364 employed people. From the month of July to October those there was an increase in 4,822 employees. This time frame represented the highest growth of employed in the city of Detroit during 2012.

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The above chart shows the number of people employed in the auto industry in the Detroit Metropolitan Statistical Area throughout 2012. Employment peaked in March, with 80,300 people being employed in both the auto manufacturing and auto parts manufacturing industries. July had the lowest number of auto employees with 75,200. Employment numbers increased from there and by December there were 78,200; this was a slight decrease from November though.

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According to the most recent data released on South Eastern Michigan’s Purchasing Manager’s Index, the number decreased by .1 point from November to December; in December it was recorded at 51.8. The Purchasing Manger’s Index (PMI) is a composite index derived from five indicators of economic activity: new orders, production, employment, supplier deliveries, and inventories; a PMI above 50 means the economy is expanding. The PMI of 51.8 means the economy continues to expand.

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The Commodity Price Index, which is a weighted average of selected commodity prices for Southeast Michigan, has fluctuated throughout 2012. Most recently though, from November to December it increased from 51.4 to 54.5 The 54.5 score in December of 2012 is 4.5 points above where the Commodity Price Index was in December of 2011.

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The Consumer Price Index, which is reported every two months, decreased .7percent from October to December and decreased.9 percent from December 2011 to December 2012 in the Detroit-Ann Arbor-Flint area. The Consumer Price Index measures the change in prices in a fixed market. The prices which are measured are based on prices of “food, clothing, shelter, fuels, transportation fares, charges for doctors’ and dentists’ services, drugs, and the other goods and services that people buy for day-to-day living,” according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Lower prices for energy (a 5.9 percent decrease) and a .1 percent increase in the food index were noted for the change.

The Consumer Price Index, minus the prices of energy and food, shown in the second Consumer Price Index graph, decreased by .1 percent from October to December. There were lower prices for recreation, household furnishings, and operations, according to the BLS.

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The above chart shows the number of residential building permits obtained each month in Oakland, Macomb, and Wayne counties. These numbers are reported by local municipalities to the Southeastern Michigan Council of Governments and include single family, two family, attached condo, and multi-family units. While the numbers reported in all three counties have not followed a specific month-to-month trend, the number of building permits pulled in Oakland County has remained the highest, with the exception of March and July. In July, the number of building permits pulled in Wayne County (229 permits) was higher than the number of permits pulled in Oakland County (195 permits) and Macomb County (154). The number of permits pulled in Wayne County in July was also the highest for the county in 2012.

From October to December all three counties saw a decrease in the number of permits pulled. From November to December though, the number pulled in Wayne County was fairly consistent , only increasing from 46 to 47. In the same time period, the number of residential building permits in Oakland County decreased from 154 to 126 and in Macomb County in decreased from 83 to 48.

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The chart above reflects the number of residential building permits pulled in the city of Detroit and the number of demolitions completed. As can be seen, the number of demolitions is consistently higher than the number of building permits pulled, with the exception of January. In January of 2012 an equal number of demolitions occurred as the number of building permits pulled, 41. Since then though, the number of demolitions taking place as increased with the number of building permits being pulled only slightly increasing on occasion. From October to December 0 building permits were pulled and  1,113 demolitions took place.

Mortality rates for Detroit and Michigan

February 2, 2013

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According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, the mortality rate is defined as “a measure of the frequency of occurrence of death among a defined population during a specified time interval.” The above chart shows the mortality rates from 2010 for each of the seven counties that make up Southeastern Michigan. Of these counties, St. Clair County had the highest mortality rate in 2010 at 1,007.1 per 100,000 residents; Wayne County had the second highest rate at 985.2. Washtenaw County had the lowest rate at 581.2.

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The above chart shows the mortality rates for the City of Detroit, the State of Michigan, and the United States. The rates from Michigan and the United States cover the time span of 1970 to 2010, while the rate for the City of Detroit only covers 1990 to 2010, the only years for which this data was available.

As can be seen, the mortality rate in the City of Detroit remained higher than the rates in Michigan and the United States from 1990 to 2010. The mortality rate in Detroit had a decreasing trend from 1995 to 1997. In 1997, the mortality rate was 9.9 per 1,000 residents, and in 1998 it increased to 10.1. Since then, the mortality rate in the city has ranged from 10.2 to 10.8. In 2010, it was recorded at 10.5.

For Michigan and the United States, the mortality rate trends over time are much smoother.  Although they were declining from 1972 to 1979, the rates increased in 1980 and remained fairly constant until 2001. From 2001 to 2010, the mortality rate for the United States began to decline while the rate in Michigan began to increase. In 2010, Michigan’s mortality rate was 8.9 per 1,000 residents, and the rate in the United States was 8.

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In 2010, the mortality rate, per 100,000 residents, in the City of Detroit was highest for those individuals 85-years-old and older; it was recorded at 13,081.2. The age bracket for individuals 75-84 years old had the second highest rate at 5,710.9. The age bracket with the lowest rate was 1 to 14-year-olds with a rate of 31.7. There was a gradual progression of increasing rates as the age groups became older, with the exception of the under 1 year old age group. For this group, there was a mortality rate of 1,423.2 per 100,000 residents in 2010. For more information on infant mortality rates, please see our previous post here.

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The above chart shows that in 2010, the mortality rate for males was consistently higher than the rate for females in every age category in the City of Detroit. For example, in the 85 and over age group, the mortality rate for males was 14,350 per 100,000 residents,  while the mortality rate for females was 12,506.

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The above chart shows the top 10 leading causes of death for Detroit and Michigan residents in 2010, according to the Michigan Department of Community Health. Heart disease had the highest mortality rate per 100,000 residents for both the City of Detroit and the State of Michigan. However, that rate was 80 deaths per 100,000 residents higher in Detroit (316) than the state (236).

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The above slide shows the death rate for each one of the counties that make of Southeastern Michigan for heart disease, which is the leading cause of death for all the above counties. Wayne County has the highest rate at 988.1. St. Clair County has the second highest rate 296.8. The rate for St. Clair County is closer to Washtenaw County’s rate of 138.2, which is the lowest of the seven counties, than it is to Wayne County.

In an upcoming post we will explore how the top 10 leading causes of death for each county in Southeastern Michigan and how they have changed over time.